T Cell Therapy Treatment: How Does it Work?
Target Indications Include:
Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) originates in the nasopharynx, an area at the upper part of the throat behind the nose. Approximately 92,5001 new cases of NPC are diagnosed worldwide each year with mortality of close to 55,0001. Although radiotherapy is the main avenue of treatment for early-stage NPC, 20-30% of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease and are not considered curable. NPC is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection, particularly in Asia, where close to 100% of NPC tumors are EBV-positive.
Cervical cancer (CC) is a cancer that originates in the cervical tissue of the female reproductive tract. Approximately 560,0001 new cases of CC are diagnosed worldwide each year with mortality of close to 300,0001. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is strongly associated with CC and 70 – 80% of CC are HPV-positive. Surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are often used to treat advanced CC. Although several HPV vaccines are available, these vaccines cannot treat CC patients who are already infected with HPV.
Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a cancer that originates in the oropharynx, an area at the back of the mouth that connects to the esophagus. Approximately 154,0001 new cases of OPC are diagnosed worldwide each year with mortality of close to 100,0001. 70% of these cancers are HPV-positive. Surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy may be used to treat OPC. As with CC, vaccines against HPV are unable to treat OPC patients who are already infected with the virus.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas
Malignant lymphomas are malignancies arising from lymphoid organs and tissues. Approximately 589,580 new cases of lymphoma were diagnosed worldwide with mortality of 274,891 in 20181. Oncogenic EBV is associated with various types of lymphoma, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and NK/T cell lymphoma2. Standard treatments of advanced HL and NHL are chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy, and recently, CAR-T cell therapy was approved for a type of NHL. PTLD currently has limited treatment options with anti-CD20 antibody as the standard treatment.
1. Globocan 2018, http://gco.iarc.fr/
2. Malignancies associated with epstein-barr virus: pathobiology, clinical features, and evolving treatments. Neparidze N, Lacy J, Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2014 Jun;12(6):358-71.